"A goal without a plan is just a wish", Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
Good planning is a key concern for every Civil Society Organisation. If you rely on grants, your ability to develop successful proposals is a decisive factor for the financial health of your organisation and the scale of your activities. And even if you have other revenue streams, the quality of planning plays a key role in the efficient implementation, effectiveness and impact of the project. Hence, when develop a project you should follow these 10 principles to sustain impact and ensure success.
1. Make every new project into something special: be ambitious but keep your feet on the ground.
Ambition energizes the team, is attractive and may lead to something special.
2. Understand your donor: Where is the common ground for a win-win situation? Who decides on new projects and according to which criteria?
Analyse the calls, the policy papers and guidelines. Network with your existing and potential key donors at country level and make sure they know how well you perform. Get in touch with the respective staff at your HQ level.
3. Never plan a stand-alone project! Integrate your project into something bigger.
Relate to organisational priorities, strategies and success indicators. Relate to the program documents, previous projects, or potential future project and, to the capacities of your staff and your partners. Relate the project to human rights, national legislation and state actors and obligations. In case of emergency response be involved in clusters, coordinate with other agencies. Consider consortia and multi-country projects to create synergies.
4. Do not sit alone in front of the computer and start writing a proposal! Rather lead and facilitate a process.
Project planning is a team exercise, an iterative process, which needs a buy in from different stakeholders. Make sure that people with different experiences and capacities are involved in your team (finance, on-site experience, writing skills, etc.). However, it also needs a skillful facilitator and planner that consolidates ideas and brings them together in a coherent document.
The steps of such a process could be:
Go / No Go Decision of organisational leadership
Installation of process coordination, set up of proposal development team, decision on who writes the proposal
Kick Off with proposal development team: time schedule
Analysis / Assessment (including Partner Assessment)
Collective planning and stakeholder buy-in
Proposal writing, budgeting
Iteration, plausibility checks and proof reading
Feedback on process and team work
5. Make sure you understand the target groups - yes, really understand them!
Make a conscious selection of tools you want to use to analyse and understand your target group. Never assume that you know what they require, or what would bring them forward. Be accountable to the target groups and partners to set the basis for trustful cooperation in the future.
6. Get the intervention logic right! It is at the heart of the project.
Make sure the intervention logic is short, precise and can be understood easily. Having lack of clarity here, means having lack of clarity in the whole project approach.
As a thumb rule, log-frames should have 1 project purpose, not more than 3 outputs, and maximum 3 indicators per output or purpose. Choose qualitative and quantitative indicators. Allow for sufficient feedback loops and check your intervention logic against the standard evaluation criteria: relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability.
7. Proposal, log frame and budget must be consistent!
This refers to number of units, unit costs, costs and activities.
8. Use your organisational knowledge!
Refer to organisational experience, consider organisational documents, use the best resources in your Head office and in other countries (where possible), be ready to learn from other colleagues, consider and reflect lessons learnt and good practices of others. Plan appropriate time for this.
9. When writing, always have the reader & evaluator in mind!
Some tips include:
Stick to the donor template – they have chosen it for a reason!
Provide a short & attractive summary of the project at the beginning of the proposal.
Use short sentences, clear and simple language are critical.
Consider using bullet points for the first draft to ensure coherence, flow and avoid redundancies. Convert it into a flowing text later.
Use a combination of flowing text, bullet points, lists, small illustrations and text boxes.
The editing should be attractive and enhance the reading experience.
Use data, “revealing quotes” of the target group, and short examples to illustrate your argument.
Refer to the collective planning process and to successes in previous interventions.
Never forget the evaluation criteria of the donor.
Be brave and delete text sections that are not really relevant.
Re-check every paragraph and make the text shorter, smarter, clearer and more persuasive.
10. Go the last mile!
A winning proposal has to be close to perfect. Don’t lose your chance on the home stretch. Reserve at least 2 days for the last mile.
How facilitators can use the principles
As a reference for the participants in our courses on project management and programme design, we have defined 10 principles together with our colleagues from Welthungerhilfe. They cover the key aspects of successful project development and can be used as a workshop tool as well. We have used the 10 principles in the following way:
First the facilitator illustrate best practices using the 10 principles. Subsequently, the participants reflect in groups of two on "Which are the most important principles for me?", and finally each participant gets three votes to indicate what is most important for him/her. Then we reflect with the entire group in the plenary which principles have been most relevant for the group and why.
For those who are interested, go to Programme Design to discover more details about our upcoming comprehensive course. This advanced level course will give you practical guidance to develop effective and innovative programmes towards ending hunger and poverty.
About the Author:
Joachim Schwarz started his career with the UN before shifting to Civil Society. In Welthungerhilfe, he worked in leadership positions in Ethiopia and Sri Lanka, and as Regional Director for South Asia. Joachim is passionate about Civil Society and has been a main engine of the Civil Society Academy since its inception in 2014.
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Please contact: Joachim Schwarz